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After 14 June 1814 - Vase of Siberian Jasper, Merton College, Oxford University, Oxford (England).Danziger's article also depicts a "vase of Siberian jasper sent to Merton College by Tsar Alexander I [1777-1825] & his sister Ekaterina Pavlovna [1788-1819] in thanks after lodging there [during the peace celebration] on the night of 14 June 1814." (This is similar to the vase [qv] given by Russia to the Peace Palace in The Hague 100 years later.) 1814-1854, 1856 - Stoodley Pike Monument, West Yorkshire (England).With this treaty, the allies ended Napoleon's rule as emperor of France and sent him into exile on Elba." /// "Napoleon's initial defeat [was] the short-lived peace proclaimed on 27 June 1814 when Napoleon was imprisoned on Elba.The peace was celebrated in Paris, but [King George IV] the Prince Regent [1762-1830] invited the allied sovereigns to continue their celebrations in England. June 1814 must have been the only time in Oxford's history when it hosted an emperor, a king, four future kings, a chancellor of the Austrian empire, two future and two past British prime ministers, many world-famous generals, and enough peers to burst the House of Lords...1931 - An excellent book (one of the first) on the international peace movement 1815-1914 is A. Cooper, "Patriotic pacifism: Waging war on war in Europe, 1815-1914." This web page was compiled (beginning in September 2010) to learn about the international peace conferences of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Beales, "The history of peace: A short account of the organised movement for international peace," The Dial Press, New York, pp. 1991 - Equally excellent and covering much the same ground, but using more archival materials, and with new perspectives, is Sandi E.

The First Geneva Convention was signed in 1864, the first international organization (the Permanent Court of Arbitration) was created in 1899, the League of Nations resulted from the Treaty of Versailles in 1920, and the United Nations replaced the League in 1945.

New York Peace Society, American Peace Society, the Peace Society (of UK), International Workers Association, International Arbitration & Peace Association, Universal Peace Union, Inter-Parliamentary Union, International Peace Bureau, Fellowship of Reconciliation, Women's Peace Party, Women's International League for Friendship & Peace. -- Peace conferences brought together many peacemakers on whom the Nobel Committee bestowed the Nobel Peace Prize -- Henri Durant (1901) | Frdric Passy (1901) | Charles Albert Gobat (1902) | lie Ducommun (1902) | William Randal Cremer (1903) | Bertha von Suttner (1905) | Fredrik Bajer (1908) | Auguste Beernaert (1909)| Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant (1909) | Tobias Asser (1911) | Alfred Hermann Fried (1911) | Elihu Root (1912) | Henri La Fontaine (1913) | Christian Lange (1921) | Austen Chamberlain (1925) | Aristide Briand (1926) | Gustav Stresemann (1926) | Ferdinand Buisson (1927) | Frank Kellogg (1929) | Nathan Sderblom (1930) | Jane Addams (1931) | Nicholas Murray Butler (1931) | Cordell Hull (1945) | Emily Greene Balch (1946) | John R. (Click here for a longer list of peacemakers who attended in the 19th century & early 20th century.) -- Peace conferences tried to end war -- and to stop impending wars. Henry Ford & Andrew Carnegie) invested in peace conferences to stop World War I.

But all attempts failed, and each World War brought an end to most pre-war conferences and peace organizations.

"100 Years of Peace making: A history of the International Peace Bureau and other international peace movement organisations and networks" by Rainer Santi, Pax frlag, International Peace Bureau (IPB), Geneva (Switzerland), January 1991. Founded by abolitionist Thomas Clarkson [1760-1846] & others. Local peace societies (part of a liberal movement for human rights, social improvements, free trade, abolition of slavery & an end to war) start to appear when the Napoleonic wars finally end in 1815.

The US & UK societies were initially inspired by religious and moral considerations, under the influence of the Quakers' principles of non-violence.

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